Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated With Chronic Kidney Disease Among Patients Presenting at a Haemodialysis Unit in Dodoma, Tanzania
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Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major public health problem worldwide, due to its epidemic proportions and the associated cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, data on the burden of CKD among patients attending hospitals in Tanzania are still limited. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with CKD among patients presenting at the University of Dodoma (UDOM) haemodialysis unit in Tanzania.
Methods: In this retrospective study, we reviewed data of 1,395 patients who presented at the UDOM haemodialysis unit from January 2013 to June 2015. Data were descriptively and inferentially analysed using Stata version 11.0.
Results: From January 2013 to June 2015, a total of 1,395 patients presented at the UDOM haemodialysis unit with history of kidney disease. Of these patients, 1244 (89.2%) enrolled into this study, 651 (52.3%) of them were female. Almost two-thirds (n=792, 63.7%) of the patients were found to have CKD, 59.1% with an estimated glomerular filtration rate of <60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Among those who had CKD, 347 (43.8%) had hypertension, 241 (30.4%) had diabetic mellitus, 79 (10.0%) had chronic glomerulonephritis, 70 (8.8%) had hypertension and diabetes mellitus, 38 (4.8%) had HIV/AIDS, and 17 (2.1%) had hepatitis B. The median serum creatinine level was 222 μmol/L (interquartile range [IQR] 126 to 317), urea level was 14.5 mmol/L (IQR 5 to 24), hemoglobin was 11.0 g/dL (IQR 6.2 to 15.7), and body mass index was 27.1 kg/m2 (IQR 17.3 to 36.8). Obesity, diabetes mellitus, and systolic hypertension were associated with developing CKD (P<.001). A total of 116 patients received haemodialysis during the study period.
Conclusion: CKD was common among patients presenting in our hospital and is associated with high cardiovascular risk. To that end, patients should be thoroughly evaluated to identify and correct causes of their kidney disease, and efforts should be put in place for early detection and screening as well as advocacy on risk factors for CKD development in Tanzania.