Using the Health Belief Model to Explain the Patient’s Compliance to Anti-hypertensive Treatment in Three District Hospitals - Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania: A Cross Section Study
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Background: Hypertension remains a public-health challenge globally. Its prevention, early detection, proper and adequate treatment and control should be given high consideration to prevent occurrence of cardiovascular disease and stroke. This study is guided by the Health Belief Model (HBM) to investigate the influence of treatment compliance using HBM constructs among elderly hypertensive patients in 3 regional hospitals in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
Methods: An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted in 3 region hospitals in Dar es Salaam from April to May 2012. The study included patients who were on antihypertensive medications. Simple Random Sampling was used to enrol the study participants. Data was collected using structured questionnaire. Data was analysed using SPSS version 20. Linear Multiple Regression analysis was performed to identify variables which are strongest predictor of treatment compliance among variables of the Health belief Model.
Results: A total of 135 participants were enrolled of whom 56% were compliant to hypertensive treatment. Multivariate analysis indicated significant model fit for the data (F=11.19 and P value <.001). The amount of variance in treatment compliance that was explained by the predictors was 30.3% (R²=0.303) with perceived barrier being the strongest predictor of treatment compliance (β=-0.477; p< .001). Other predictor variables were not statistically associated with treatment compliance.
Conclusion: The study showed that 56% of study participants had hypertensive treatment compliance and perceived barrier to treatment was the strongest predictor. Innovative strategy on improving patients’ perception of barrier to treatment is recommended in order to improve treatment compliance.